Crushed Pearl[1]

The Battle For Manila, February 1945

“Noisy? It was so damn loud. Hot and sticky and stinking, too. That’s what I remember most about the Battle for Manila. That and the blood and the death, the bodies and the smell. The sounds of death, dying, living or trying to live when all around everything was dying.”

What can you say after that? What could a man who has never been in combat, say? I have never killed another human and I never want to but if I had to… could I? This man could.  Had. Eighty two years old and when he was a young man half my age he had killed more men than he cared to remember. Seen too many die. Men, women and children. Enemies, allies, comrades.

“It was so frickin’ hot and dry and dusty and there was no water you could trust, just puddles of brown muck full of rat turds and body parts. We hadn’t washed since we left the ship in Lingayan Gulf and walked the 130 miles to Manila and we stunk but you couldn’t tell and you didn’t care because everyone stunk the same and the dead stunk worse.”

I’m wondering when do we get to the glory? You’re liberating people from Japanese occupation, MacArthur has returned!  Where is the damn glory? Some idiot inside my head was asking stupid questions, probably the part of me that wants to hold on to the innocence, or perhaps ignorance, of someone who has never known war.  Never had to kill or be killed, never had to charge that machine gun or just keep going when all about you are getting shredded into human mince as they run. I know there is no glory in war, no pride in killing, I’m not that naïve but the sheer horror of what I was hearing made me scrabble for something good to come from all the bad I was hearing.

“We burned ‘em with flame throwers, we shot ‘em, shelled ‘em, mortared ‘em, bombed ‘em, bayoneted ‘em. We killed them any way we could. We didn’t take frickin’ prisoners even if they had given themselves up, which most of them never did.  They would kill themselves rather than surrender. Even when they were starving to death and could barely crawl they would look at you with those blank stares and emaciated bodies and just stare at you like a sick dog while you shot ‘em. Screw ‘em! Too many of my buddies were killed, too many people had suffered because their Emperor wanted to rule the world and he never suffered a day in his life for what he done.”

He was getting angry again. I looked at him as he kept talking, looking right through me, sixty years into the past. I could see the young man he had once been, a sergeant in the 148th Regiment, 37th Division, United States Army. A survivor who fought in New Guinea, Bougainville and the Philippines then went home and raised a family only to see a son sacrificed to senseless political violence in Vietnam and a grandson follow his father’s fate in Fallujah.

We were sitting in the lobby of the Swagman Hotel in Ermita.  Just around the corner from the US Embassy and the Mayfair Hotel. Not far from there was the Luneta, otherwise known as Rizal Park and beyond that, the Manila Hotel,  once home to the MacArthurs’. The Swagman hadn’t existed in 1945, but then by the time the American troops reached the Mayfair and the Embassy, neither did those once proud buildings.  The Mayfair had been used by the Japanese to imprison hundreds of Filipino civilians. The Naval infantry barricaded the doors and windows and set fire to the building with grenades and cans of petrol[2].  Anyone who tried to escape was shot or bayoneted. It wasn’t the first time they had done such an atrocious thing during their defence of Manila. It wouldn’t be the last time either.

I looked out of the picture windows onto the street that in February 1945 had been an expanse of rubble, torn telegraph wires, ruptured pipes and rotting corpses. It was hard to imagine that level of devastation all the way from there to Malate, nearly two kilometres along the bay to the south. The day before I had walked from the Malate Church, another scene of Japanese atrocity, to Fort Santiago in the walled city of Intramuros, a kilometre or so past where we now sat. The traffic jammed the streets and the humidity clogged the air and the noise was modern day Manila, not an explosion to be heard above the cacophony of commerce and commuters.

At Malate I looked down Mabini Street, squatting low to get a machine gunners’ eye view and trying to imagine taking a bead on a fleeting glimpse of enemy two blocks north. Dodging jeepneys and motorcycles, I made a dash across the busy street and had a flash of what it might have been like crossing the same street under enemy observation and fire six decades before. I headed up M.H. del Pilar against the one way traffic, glancing up at the roofline of the buildings that had all been rebuilt since US artillery decimated them in the latter part of the battle.

To begin with MacArthur had forbidden the use of aerial bombing or indirect artillery fire out of concern for the safety of the civilians trapped between the two armies. As Japanese resistance turned terminal that rule of engagement was changed to allow for artillery to fire on buildings directly observed to house the enemy.  Then, as always seems to happen when mounting casualties make even the best of intentions moot, more and more fire missions resulted in more and more dead Japs, demolished dwellings and decimated civilians.

The official death toll for the battle is usually accepted as 1,000 US soldiers, 16,000 Japanese troops and 100,000 Filipino civilians. Wounded, missing and those that died of wounds later on pushed the casualty figures much, much higher.  So high we will never know just how many perished under the guns and rubble of February 1945. Some historians and Filipino nationalists have accused the US of sacrificing Filipino civilians rather than risk the lives of their own soldiers. If that was the case and you were the General in charge of both liberating the city and looking after the welfare of the men under your command, what choice would you have made? Accusations that the US Army felt that losing ten Filipinos was better than losing just one G.I. are at best merely an opinion but at worst they are a heinous insult to the men who gave their lives.  Such claims stem from the fact orders were given to race at full speed to rescue American and allied prisoners of war and civilian internees held in camps at Cabanatuan, Santo Tomas University and Bilibid Prison[3].

The fact is that Manila could have been bypassed and left to ‘whither on the vine’. This was the advice of General Krueger, commander of the US 6th Army. MacArthur of course had other ideas. When he had been ordered to Australia in 1942 he had famously claimed he would return. Leaving his command to their fate had never sat comfortably with MacArthur, even his most ardent detractors concede that point. MacArthur felt honour bound to return to the Philippines and to return to Manila.  It was a very real political necessity and there was merit in his argument that the modern port facilities would be needed for the next step in the campaign to hop from island to island all the way to Japan.[4]

When the Japanese had invaded the Philippines in December of 1941, MacArthur had declared Manila an open city to save it from being destroyed by the Japanese[5]. It was tactically pointless to fight over the city when his War Plan Orange called for the defence of the Bataan Peninsula across Manila Bay, holding out until reinforcements were sent from the USA that would enable him to throw the Japanese back into the sea. Of course these reinforcements never arrived because they had never been sent. Even if  Roosevelt hadn’t already assured Churchill that the European Theatre came first, with the Pacific Fleet put out of action for the immediate future at Pearl Harbor the Japanese Navy dominated the sea lanes through which any assistance would have had to travel.

War Plan Orange had been just one of several predetermined plans drawn up by MacArthur before the Japanese invasion.  Everyone had known for months, even years, that war with Japan was pretty much inevitable. The dependants of military personnel and many of the civilian employees of various foreign firms operating in the Philippines had been sent back to the USA months before the first Japanese soldier set foot in Lingayan Gulf.

War Plan Orange called for a fighting withdrawal to the Bataan Peninsula and then a determined defence using the mountainous terrain to their advantage.  Backed up by the island fortress of Corrigedor blocking the entrance to Manila Bay, it was felt the possession of Manila itself would achieve nothing strategically and very little politically.

Senior Philippine government officials were safely evacuated to Corrigedor and President Manuel Quezon and selected staff members later went on to Australia and then to Washington. Although President Quezon died in exile in Washington, his successor Sergio Osmena was alongside MacArthur on 20th October 1944 when he stepped ashore at Red Beach on Leyte and fulfilled his promise to return.

When war did erupt on the morning of the 8th of December it was with an air raid on Clark Field in the middle of the fertile Luzon Plain. US air power was effectively wiped out within the first hours of hostilities and MacArthur seemed to hesitate, even dither. As the Japanese landed they met stiff resistance in places and were unopposed elsewhere while MacArthur’s staff waited for his orders to execute War Plan Orange. For some days it seemed as if he was frozen, incapable of giving orders as his army retreated under increasing enemy pressure.[6]

Then MacArthur seemed to snap out of his trance and he began to lead his forces with skill and intelligence. Bataan was a vicious, no holds barred, no quarter asked or given campaign. While the Japanese herded the civilian population of Balanga in front of them as human shields, the staunch defenders on Mount Samat mowed down their countrymen and women and then kept on shooting as their bullets finally found Japanese bodies.[7]

Making conditions considerably worse for the beleaguered defenders was the fact most of their supplies had been taken from Bataan and Corrigedor and repositioned on the Central Luzon Plain while MacArthur seemed to be undecided between following War Plan Orange or the original USAFFE[8] Plan that relied upon holding out for up to six months before help arrived. But help was not on the way and although the men did hold out nearly that long, they had suffered terribly from malnutrition, disease and lack of medical supplies.

While the battle raged along the Bataan Peninsula, MacArthur remained in the Malinta Tunnel on Corrigedor Island so as to maintain communications with all of his forces spread across the archipelago. When he heard his men were calling him ‘Dugout Doug’, MacArthur claimed in his memoirs he would rather pick up a rifle and fight in the trenches as a private than have his men think him a coward[9].

On the 11th of March he was ordered to leave Corrigedor and proceed to Australia to take over the allied forces that would win back the Pacific. Even though neither Bataan nor Corrigedor had fallen, it was already a foregone conclusion that the US Army of the Far East would soon cease to be a viable fighting force and their most valuable asset, General Douglas MacArthur, was to be spared and saved for a more important task than surrendering to the Japanese. The 70,000 men he left to fend for themselves formed their own opinion with popular ditties of the time claiming;

Dugout Doug MacArthur lies ashakin’ on the Rock

Safe from all the bombers and from any sudden shock

Dugout Doug is eating of the best food on Bataan

And his troops go starving on[10]

On 3 January 1942, after repeated badgering by MacArthur, President Quezon had authorized the payment of $640,000 from the Philippine Treasury to MacArthur and members of his staff ‘in recognition of outstanding service’.  MacArthur received $500,000 with $70,000 paid to Major General Sutherland and the remainder to Major General Marshall and Colonel Huff. In the meantime, Quezon kept asking MacArthur for transport and permission to leave Corrigedor so he could conduct his government in exile firstly in unoccupied areas of the country and later in the USA.  MacArthur refused, claiming it wasn’t safe to allow him to leave and that he feared the collapse of the government if it were seen they were no longer under his protection. On the 19th February MacArthur received confirmation the money had been transferred to his New York bank account and ‘coincidentally’ Quezon was allowed to leave. Although highly irregular this payment was allowed by President Roosevelt and Secretary of State Stimson. In 2009 dollars it would be worth about US$5,000,000.[11]

On the Bataan Peninsula, with his rear areas and field hospitals under enemy observation and bombardment, General King surrendered his forces to General Homma on the 9th April 1942. Unprepared to manage the tens of thousands of prisoners of war, the Japanese marched the men to the San Fernando railhead and then by cattle car to Capas before a final march to Camp O’Donnell.  Along the way the havoc wreaked on the men’s health by the starvation, disease and combat of the past four months along with many acts of cruelty and murder by their guards claimed between ten and sixteen thousand lives and entered the annals of history as the ‘Bataan Death March’.[12]

In towns along the way the Filipino population lined the road to cheer their brave soldiers. This infuriated the Japanese who could not understand how they could have anything but contempt for their troops who had, to the Japanese mind, disgraced themselves by surrendering. Many Filipino troops simply stepped out of the ranks and shielded by locals, stood watching as if they were bystanders. In Guagua, Filipinos in buildings along the roadside threw fruit and bottles of water to the tired POWs until Japanese troops opened fire, machine gunning the windows and doorways and killing and wounding countless civilians[13].

With Bataan secured, Homma’s artillery had a clear view of Corrigedor and began to pound the defenders day and night. On the 6th of May, 1942 after the Japanese landed troops and tanks and despite a stiff resistance by the defenders, Corrigedor fell. General Wainwright surrendered his forces, at first trying to limit the surrender to just those troops on Corrigedor.  However, fearing these men would be massacred at the hands of the victors unless he did so, Wainwright surrendered all US forces in the Philippines. Those troops on Mindanao and other islands who had not fired a shot in anger were forced to obey the orders of their superior officer and surrender.  Some individuals would disobey this order and fight on as guerrillas until liberation in 1944 and 1945, fearing to the end being court martialled for their decision to continue the fight. When MacArthur’s forces returned, these American led guerrilla units proved invaluable as scouts and sources of intelligence as well as taking part in three major prisoner rescue missions.[14]

By the time the US 6th Army landed on the very same beaches in Lingayan Gulf used by the Japanese 14th Army three years earlier, most of the 7,000 POWs from Camp O’Donnell had been moved to Japan to work in mines and on the docks. Far too many of these men died on the way when their ships were sunk, ironically by US submarines that had maintained an effective blockade on many of the Japanese maritime supply routes once the Philippines fell in 1942.

Most of those who remained were held at Cabanatuan in Nueva Ejica, north east of Manila. The US Sixth Army commander, Lt. Gen. Walter Kreuger, personally ordered the 6th Ranger battalion to raid Cabanatuan and rescue the POWs. On the 27th January with co-operation from Filipino guerrilla forces in the area, 512 POWs were freed with US forces suffering only three casualties.

When the Japanese entered Manila in 1942 they interned nearly five thousand American and Allied civilians, men, women and children.  These people were herded into Santo Tomas University and many were to remain there until liberated by troops of the 1st US Cavalry some three years later.[15] At Santo Tomas on 3 February 1945 on the very eve of the battle for Manila,  nearly 6,000 prisoners including 5,000 Filipinos were freed. Other civilian internees had been relocated to the Philippine Agricultural College at Los Banos in 1943 and some civilian and military POWs were also imprisoned in Bilibid Prison, the main civilian gaol in Manila.  The rescue of the 2,147 prisoners at Los Banos by the 11th Airborne Division and Filipino guerrilla units on 23 February 1945 has been called ‘the textbook airborne operation for all ages and all armies’. Sadly the rescue caused the death of 1500 local Filipinos, murdered in reprisal by the Japanese the following day.[16]

As well as the US Sixth Army under Kreuger, the US Eighth Army led by Lt. Gen. Eichelberger was in the field and pressing hard on Manila. MacArthur deliberately played each General against the other in his quest to return to Manila before his birthday on the 26th of January, regardless of the cost in human lives or the lack of military necessity not warranting such slaughter. Even when this day passed and his troops were still outside the city limits MacArthur continued to press for a speedy recapture so he could have his victory parade.[17]

The lead elements of the 37th Infantry Division and the 1st Cavalry Division entered Manila on the 3rd of February.  Cavalry units moved to the left flank to secure the city’s water supply in the hills to the north east while others moved towards the Pasig River and Malacanang, the Presidential Palace. Puppet President Jose Laurel had fled some days before and the palace was taken over by the Regimental Headquarters staff of the 148th Infantry Regiment. They found stores of liquor, cigars and canned foods hidden in the wall panelling and had a great time ‘remodelling’ until advancing front lines dragged them closer to the noise of battle.[18]

While Eichelberger’s US 8th Army troops captured Tagaytay and pressed north through Pasay and into Manila from the south, the 1st Cavalry Division swung around the main Japanese line of resistance centered on the City Hall and Post Office and entered the fray through Malate and Ermita. Having crossed the Pasig River under enemy fire on the 5th, troops of the 37th Infantry Division fought long and hard for control of the power stations on Provisor Island in the middle of the river.[19]

By the 10th the battle for the Post Office and the Legislative Building in the city centre began.  Built by the Americans to withstand the many typhoons that batter the city every year, these buildings were also earthquake proof. The Japanese turned each floor into a warren of well protected strong points with interlocking fields of fire from machine guns and even artillery pieces. Control of these major buildings was vital to the assault on the final citadel, the walled city of Intramuros. Without these two buildings in US hands any movement across the open ground towards Intramuros was nothing less than suicidal.

Hand to hand fighting in the wide corridors of these public buildings was juxtaposed against tanks and field guns firing down long corridors littered with booby traps and bodies. Dark, dank and gloomy, the fighting took place in almost total humidity and very little ambient light.  Soldiers suffered concussive blasts from hand grenades and main gun rounds. Flame throwers added to the stifling heat and stench. Short, sharp gun fights on stairwells decided the ownership of a room or landing. Desperate counter attacks at bayonet point drove the enemy back until they returned the favour with equal ferocity.

All the while the Filipino civilians, caught in the middle, suffered as the shelling intensified. Thousands crammed into hospitals, convents, churches, university campuses and public buildings hoping to find some protection from the shrapnel and the blast. The Japanese murdered thousands of civilians out of sheer spite.  Raping and killing at random.  Those the Japanese spared or missed, the American shelling claimed as their own. Any left alive had to fight for their survival with no food, no clean water, no electricity, no medicine and no hope of respite[20].

By the 23rd the city had fallen to the Americans.  All except the citadel. Intramuros. The old Spanish walled city was the last remaining Japanese point of resistance in the Philippine capitol and it would prove a tough nut to crack. Troops from the 37th Infantry attacked across the Pasig River while tanks of the 5th Cavalry Regiment raced for the Manila Hotel.  MacArthur dashed into his old lodgings with the lead elements of the 5th, eager to discover if any of his belongings remained in the penthouse apartment he had once called home.  For a soldier of his rank to place himself at such risk for such a spurious reason was neither brave nor admirable, rather it was foolhardy and typical of his selfishness.[21]

The Capture of Manila February-March 1945

Savage street fighting in the crowded, ancient stone streets of Intramuros gave the advantage to the defenders. Nevertheless, the relentless courage of the American liberators wore down the stubborn tenacity of the Japanese street by street, house by house. On the 3rd of March the last Japanese resistance was crushed as artillery levelled the Finance Building. The next day Manila was officially liberated and MacArthur had his parade. Even before then, while the fighting still raged on, MacArthur had summoned a provisional assembly of prominent Filipinos to Malacanang Palace and declared;

“My country kept the faith. Your capital city, cruelly punished though it be, has regained its rightful place—citadel of democracy in the East.”[22]

“Which is easy for him to say! That sunnofabitch didn’t have to charge the open ground to the walls of Intramuros, or fight his way house to house. I still remember the pounding in my ears as I ran. I ran like a scared jack rabbit. My helmet was bouncing around on my head, my webbing straps ate into my shoulders and my rifle felt like it weighed a hundred pounds. I ran and ran and ran and that damned wall never got any closer. I could see tracer rounds going both ways past my head, some of them ricocheting off the ground and drizzling away in a lazy arc that could still cut you in half if they hit you. I could hear the zip, zip, zip as they cut past me, even over the pounding. Damn heart was pounding so loud I thought it would explode!”

I signaled to the waitress for two more cold San Miguel beers and quickly turned back to my drinking partner in case he stopped remembering. I tried to think what it must have been like to fight a suicidal enemy in the ruins of the old Spanish settlement a short walk away. If I stood up and went outside the air conditioned comfort of the hotel lobby we were in I could see the gate through which Sherman tanks crashed on the third day of the fight for the finish.  The beers came with a classic Filipina smile and after a quick chug we were back there, pinned down on the golf course surrounding the walls. It was just before seven a.m., 25th February 1945.

“I would have given my left one for a cold beer that day.  You know we had captured a brewery just before we entered Manila? Yeah, the afternoon of the 2nd, at Balintawak. We were told the engineers were going to take a couple of hours to get a bridge across the Tulihan so we should rest over in that old factory. The place was awash… with beer! Cold beer! By the time I got there men had stripped the liners out of their helmets and were scooping it up and bathing in the stuff!”

I had read about the ‘Battle of Balintawak’ before, it had actually happened as he was telling me about it.  Cold beer had been theirs for the taking after weeks of non-stop hot and dusty marching from Lingayan Gulf to the outskirts of Manila.[23]

“I tripped over a root or a rock or something and I hit the ground hard, knocked the wind out of me. Knocked the fight out of me too.  All I wanted to do was stay there and sweat. Hell I was out of the line of fire and I was still in one piece. I had eleven hours to go until nightfall and I was quite happy to stay there as long as it took then crawl away under cover of darkness.” He took another pull on his beer and reached for the cigarettes on the table between us.

“I poked my head up and all around me my buddies were running, crawling, firing, crying out for a medic, screaming for their mothers. It was crazy. One of our sergeants got up and ran forward firing his BAR[24] from the hip and screaming something that must have meant something to him. Meant nothing to me. I couldn’t hear what he was saying for the gunfire and shelling. And my damned heart pounding away under my helmet. He got cut down after twenty yards and somebody else jumped up and ran forward doing the same stupid thing. Then someone else and someone else and then it was my turn. I just got up and ran forward firing my Garand[25] and screaming something that didn’t make sense but seemed appropriate at the time. I ran out of ammo, heard the ‘ting!’ as the empty clip flew out with the last round and I just fell down. I wasn’t hit. I just fell down, reloaded and waited my turn again. And again. And again. I don’t know how many times we got up and ran forward but we did and then we were there. At the wall. Damn thirty feet high and fifteen feet thick and I wasn’t getting shot at anymore.”

He took a pull on the beer, a drag on the smoke and another pull on the beer before the smoke came back out. He looked like he’d done that a thousand times before but somehow I knew he didn’t tell this story that often. Too raw still, even after sixty years.

“I ran in through the breach the artillery had made, or maybe it was one of the M4s.  Shermans.  We had two come up sometime while we ran the open ground. Must have taken the pressure off ‘cos we made it to the wall. I followed my squad in through the wall and right away we came under fire from a Nambu 99[26] in a basement to our left.  Then another to our right. We just burrowed into the rubble and waved the Sherman over. Took out the Nambu on the right, then the one on the left, then rolled on. We followed behind the tank. Any Japs we saw, if the tank missed them, we got ‘em.”

He stubbed out the butt, finished off the beer and gave me a look that told me he was finished talking. Almost.

“I knew it was going too good. Getting too easy.  Then we come across a couple of Japs in a pill box. One of the guys pulled a grenade out of his pocket and took the pin out. He started to crawl forward to get into a better position to throw it at the pillbox firing port. The guy next to me leaned out from behind some rubble and took aim to give covering fire and the rubble slipped. He fired wild and the shot hit the guy with the grenade. He dropped the grenade and fell down screaming his lungs out. I tried to turn and run but the guy who had shot him was in the way.  That’s the last thing I remember about the battle for Manila.  Last thing I remember about Manila, too. Woke up in a hospital ship heading for Hawaii. After all that crap, I got taken out by my own guys!”

We said our goodbyes as he picked up his cigarettes and headed for his room upstairs, helped by the pretty young Filipina who had sat silently beside him the whole time we had talked. I paid the tab and walked out into the bright, muggy afternoon sunshine. I headed towards Intramuros, sweating like a rapist within a grenade’s blast of leaving the hotel. I had to see it all again. Intramuros, the old fort, the Finance Building. See it once more only this time with someone else’s eyes. Eyes that had last seen what I was about to see sixty years before. In fact, what I was about to see was the very last thing those eyes had ever seen.


Alamo Scouts (US 6th Army)., http://www.alamoscouts.org/ (Accessed 20 July 2008)

Ancell, R. Manning & Miller, Christine., 1996. The Biographical Dictionary of World War II Generals and Flag Officers: The US Armed Forces. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press

Arthu, Anthony., 1985. Deliverance at Los Baños. New York: Thomas Dunne/St. Martin’s Press

Author Unknown., 1980. Mystery Money Time Magazine 11 Feb 1980 http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,950249,00.html?iid=chix-sphere (Accessed 20 July 2008)

Breuer, William B., 1994. The Great Raid on Cabanatuan. New York: J. Wiley & Sons,

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Esposo, William., 2005. 1945 Battle of Manila (Anti-US Military BARRF Alert! ) http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1333151/posts (Accessed 20 July 2008)

Facing the Corporate Roots of American Fascism., Press for Conversion! magazine, Issue # 53,http://coat.ncf.ca/our_magazine/links/53/macarthur.html (Accessed 20 July 2008)

Flanagan, Edward M..  1986. The Los Baños Raid: The 11th Airborne Jumps at Dawn. San Francisco: Presidio Books

Frankel, Stanley A., 1994.  FRANKEL-Y SPEAKING ABOUT WORLD WAR II IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC. http://www.frankel-y.com/tape014.htm (Accessed 18 July 2008)

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Documentary on Douglas MacArthur raises issues of contemporary importance. 27 May 1999

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Leary, William Matthew., 1988. We Shall Return! MacArthur’s Commanders and the Defeat of Japan. University Press of Kentucky

McRaven, William H., 1995. Spec Ops: Case Studies in Special Operations Warfare Theory and Practice. New York: Presidio Press

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Petillo, Carol M., 1979. Douglas MacArthur and Manuel Quezon: A Note on an Imperial Bond. The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Feb., 1979), pp. 107-117

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[1] Manila is known as “The Pearl of the Orient Sea” after the second line in National Hero Jose Rizal’s Death Poem, “Mi Ultimo Adios” (My Final Goodbye) “Farewell, my adored Land, region of the sun caressed, 
Pearl of the Orient Sea, our Eden lost,” Rizal, Dr Jose., 1896. Mi Ultimo Adios. http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/Literature/Poems/last_poem_of_rizal.htm

[2] Esposo, William., 2005. 1945 Battle of Manila (Anti-US Military BARRF Alert!) http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1333151/posts (Accessed 20 July 2008) and Authors’ interviews with Filipino survivors and relatives.

[3] Sullivan, Gordon R., No Date. HyperWar: The US Army Campaigns of World War II: Luzon. http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USA/USA-C-Luzon/index.html

[4] Leary, William Matthew., 1988. We Shall Return! MacArthur’s Commanders and the Defeat of Japan. University Press of Kentucky

[5] Japanese forces landed on Bataan Is 8 December, then at Camiguin Island and Vigan, Aparri and Gonzaga on 10 December, these were diversionary attacks. Landings were made in the south of Luzon at Legaspi on the 12th and in Mindanao on the 19th. The main invasion force landed at Lingayan Gulf 22 December and MacArthur declared Manila an  Open City 25 December. The Japanese occupied Manila from 2 January 1942 until 23 February 1945.

[6] On 28th December 1941 MacArthur did, however issue a ‘Buy’ order to Jorge Vargas, the Mayor of Manila asking him to purchase US$35, 000 worth of shares in the Lepanto Mining Company, which Vargas did. This single share transaction made MacArthur a millionaire by the end of the war!

The Gathering Storm http://www.users.bigpond.com/pacificwar/gatheringstorm/philippines/SiegeBatCorr.html

[7] Sandler, S., 2000. World War II in the Pacific: An Encyclopedia (Military History of the United States). New York: Routledge

[8]USAFFE – United States Armed Forces In the Far East

[9] Wilson, Sarah E., 1999. An Uncommon Soldier: Douglas MacArthur. Humanities, May/June 1999, Volume 20/Number 3

[10] The Gathering Storm http://www.users.bigpond.com/pacificwar/gatheringstorm/philippines/SiegeBatCorr.html

[11] Petillo, Carol M. 1979 The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Feb., 1979), pp. 107-117    & Author Unknown., 1980. Mystery Money Time Magazine 11 Feb 1980 http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,950249,00.html?iid=chix-sphere (Accessed 20 July 2008)

[12] Official US Army History http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/pi/PI.htm

[13] Sullivan, Gordon R., No Date ‘HyperWar: The US Army Campaigns of World War II: Luzon http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USA/USA-C-Luzon/index.html and interviews with the Author of Filipino and US survivors, 2002.

[14] Sandler, S. 2000. ‘World War II in the Pacific: An Encyclopedia (Military History of the United States)’  Routledge

[15] McRaven, William H., 1995. Spec Ops: Case Studies in Special Operations Warfare Theory and Practice. New York: Presidio Press

[16] Flanagan, Edward M.,  1986. The Los Baños Raid: The 11th Airborne Jumps at Dawn. San Francisco: Presidio Books

[17] Leary, William Matthew. 1988 ‘We Shall Return! MacArthur’s Commanders and the Defeat of Japan.’ University Press of Kentucky.

[18] Frankel, Stanley A., 1994. FRANKEL-Y SPEAKING ABOUT WORLD WAR II IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC. http://www.frankel-y.com/tape014.htm

[19] Official US Army History., http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/pi/PI.htm

[20] Sullivan, Gordon R., No Date. HyperWar: The US Army Campaigns of World War II: Luzon. http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USA/USA-C-Luzon/index.html

[21] Leary, William Matthew., 2001. MacArthur and the American Century: A Reader. University of Nebraska Press

[22] Leary, William Matthew., 1988. We Shall Return! MacArthur’s Commanders and the Defeat of Japan. University Press of Kentucky

[23] Frankel, Stanley A., 1994. FRANKEL-Y SPEAKING ABOUT WORLD WAR II IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC. http://www.frankel-y.com/tape014.htm (Accessed 18 July 2008)

[24] BAR – Browning Automatic Rifle, magazine fed light machine gun.

[25] Garand M1 semi automatic rifle.

[26] Nambu 99, a type of light machine gun.

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